wood rat colorado

14–27 in: Betancourt, Julio L.; Van Devender, Thomas R.; Martin, Paul S., eds. Woodrats are herbivores with a broad, flexible diet including with an average of four. [7], In habitats where yucca are abundant white-throated woodrats use the base of yucca for shelter sites. Hole diameter was 3.5 to 7 inches (8.9–18 cm). [32][33], At Montezuma Castle National Monument, white-throated woodrat abundance was generally greater in an active riparian channel and floodplain than a mesquite bosque that was 7 to 13 feet (2–4 m) above the channel and floodplain and not subject to flooding.

[5][6], In general, white-throated woodrats occupy desert grasslands, semiarid shrublands,[9][13][14] saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) cactus communities,[15] pinyon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.) [18] According to Brown and Zeng,[40] maximum longevity for the white-throated woodrat is 45 months, and according to Newton,[20] maximum longevity is 72 months. pp. On bulldozed plots, Colorado pinyon, one-seed juniper, and alligator juniper trees were pushed over and left in place. Bushy Tailed Woodrat The bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea) is one representative of the rodent family Muridae - the native rats and mice - in Rocky Mountain National Park. As the name implies, they have a Cornely, J. E., and R. J. Baker. Access to the bait by pets can be minimized by inverting a wooden crate over [3] Populations east of the Rio Grande in New Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas, previously considered to be variants of the white-throated woodrat, have since 1988 been assigned to the white-toothed woodrat (Neotoma leucodon).[4]. In Arizona, the mating season is from January to August. [26][32][33][34], In several studies in Arizona, white-throated woodrats preferred low tree cover and high shrub, rock, and litter cover. entrances to buildings, including those at the attic level, must be closed. Trap bait should be wedged into, or tied, to the treadle.

their low hazard to pets and children. Yellow paloverde was probably selected for shelter least often because it is a single-stemmed tree with a tall canopy; organpipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi) was probably selected most often because it is a multiple-stemmed plant with many cylindrical stems branching near the ground from a central trunk, providing more cover. In northern portions of their range, white-throated woodrats tend to construct houses at the bases of trees;[7][16][23][31] in southern portions of their range, white-throated woodrats tend to construct houses at the bases of shrub-trees, shrubs,[7][19][23][38][39] or cacti. [17][36], In juniper woodlands in the high desert of southeastern Utah, white-throated woodrats occasionally denned under boulder crevices at the bases of vertical cliffs. [38] An exception in habitat dominated by mesquite occurred on the Santa Cruz river bottom near Tucson, Arizona, where white-throated woodrat houses were also built under netleaf hackberry, American black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata), bear grass (Nolina spp.

Miscellaneous Publications No. Bait exposed in this manner must be placed

Finely ground, or meal-type, anticoagulant Thesis. inches long and 11 ounces) being the largest. [16] In habitat dominated by brittle bush in Saguaro National Monument, all 103 white-throated woodrat dens were located within jumbles of rocks or under boulders. Like most members of the genus living in rocky areas, dens tend to take advantage of crevices, rock shelters, and caves; stick nests are relatively rare. It is found from central Mexico north to Utah and Colorado in the United States.

grayish, bellies. [7][14][18] Of 30 white-throated woodrat dens found in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, 77% contained stored food.

woodrat), to rich reddish tan (bushy-tailed woodrat), with most having white, to

(1979) Rodent population densities and food habits in Arizona ponderosa pine forests. National Audubon Society field guide to North American mammals. On the Jornada Experiment Range in New Mexico, and the Black Gap Wildlife Management Refuge in Trans-Pecos Texas, white-throated woodrats built houses at the bases and fallen trunks of yucca. Most stored food consisted of mesquite beans and cacti and forb seeds. The majority of woodrat problems in Regardless of season, white-throated woodrats preferred to eat evergreen species. [20] In the Cholla Garden in Joshua Tree National Park, white-throated woodrats depended on stands of jumping cholla (Cylindropuntia fulgida) for cover,[22] and in the Lower Sonoran zone of Arizona, most white-throated woodrat dens were found at the bases of cholla and prickly-pear. [7][18], White-throated woodrats use locally available building materials to construct houses. Of 4 treatments (untreated; bulldozed/piled/burned; bulldozed; and thinned), white-throated woodrats were most abundant on bulldozed plots and thinned plots, where slash accumulations were 2.5 to 3 times greater than on other plots. In areas of rocky outcrops, crevices often are utilized, with sticks and other materials preventing free access to the nesting chamber. [42] For a complete list of foods eaten by white-throated woodrats in the Santa Rita Experimental Range, see Vorhies and Taylor. New York: Ronald Press Company. The white-throated woodrat is a small rodent measuring an average of 12.9 inches (32.8 cm) and weighing an average of 188 g for females and 224 g for males. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. [7] Houses and dens are often maintained by successive generations of white-throated woodrats. In: Hall, E. Raymond; Fitch, Henry S.; Alvarez, Ticul.

Most baits formulated for rats and house [41] In the Lower Sonoran zone of southern Arizona (Santa Rita Experimental Range), cacti and mesquite were the primary foods eaten. nut meats, bacon rind, peanut butter and oatmeal, prunes, raisins and other [25], The white-throated woodrat is well adapted to xeric habitats[7] but may use natural[26][34][35] and human constructed riparian areas when available. These plants provide cover and succulent plant food (>50% water by weight) (see section "Food habits"), the 2 most critical habitat requirements for white-throated woodrat. Molecular data suggest that this species separated from other species of the Neotoma floridana group (Neotoma floridana, Neotoma micropus, Neotoma leucodon) about 155,000 years ago during the Illinoian Stage of the Pleistocene. You can even climb-cut and have no breakout, thanks to its unique manual power-feed. [22] In Arizona, mean litter sizes were 1.95 young/litter (n=93 litters)[7] and 2.5 young/litter (n=27 litters). White-throated woodrats selected house sites in reverse order of plant abundance: yellow paloverde 18.1 plants/ha, 6 houses; desert ironwood, 7.6 plants/ha, 14 houses; and organ pipe cactus, 5.0 plants/ha, 21 houses. [20], In Guadalupe Mountains National Park and the Lower Sonoran zone of Arizona, use of building materials depended on availability.

The Mexican woodrat (Neotoma mexicana) is a medium-sized rat occurring in the United States from Utah and Colorado south through New Mexico and parts of Arizona and Trans-Pecos Texas. [38] In Joshua Tree National Monument, California, young white-throated woodrats establish their own dens by August and September, several months after birth.

[26], Although preferred habitat differed between male and female white-throated woodrats on the Santa Rita Experimental Range, Arizona, both genders showed some preference for riparian woodland typified by Arizona white oak and netleaf hackberry:[34], Construction of water developments in xeric habitat in Arizona may provide habitat and water for white-throated woodrats. In pinyon-juniper woodlands at the Piñon Canyon Maneuver site near Trinidad, Colorado, white-throated woodrats were captured most often in areas with coarse woody debris. [7], This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of Agriculture document: "Neotoma albigula"..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}, Hall, E. Raymond; Kelson, Keith R. 1959. American wildlife and plants. ), 4% sagebrush (Artemisia spp. [7], Mesquite is often favored by white-throated woodrats for shelter in habitat dominated by mesquite in New Mexico,[19] Arizona,[16][19] California,[38] and Texas.

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