Air France Flight 447 (AF447 or AFR447) was a scheduled international passenger flight from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Paris, France.On 1 June 2009, the Airbus A330 serving the flight stalled and did not recover, eventually crashing into the Atlantic Ocean at 02:14 UTC, killing all 228 passengers and crew. The aircraft left Orly Airport at 12:32 pm, bound for Heathrow Airport, and took off in an easterly direction, before turning north.  The aircraft struck the ocean belly-first at a speed of 152 knots (282 km/h; 175 mph), comprising vertical and horizontal components of 108 knots (200 km/h; 124 mph) and 107 knots (198 km/h; 123 mph) respectively. If the latches were not properly closed, the pins would strike the torque tube flanges and the handle would remain open, visually indicating a problem.  The BEA and Air France both condemned the release of this information, with Air France calling it "sensationalized and unverifiable information" that "impairs the memory of the crew and passengers who lost their lives. The Daily Telegraph pointed out the absence of AoA information, which is so important in identifying and preventing a stall. The Washington Post, Dec. 2, 1974. No No No!  At this point, on the evidence of the recovered bodies and materials, investigators confirmed the plane had crashed killing everyone on board.  Multiple sensors provide the pitch (attitude) information and no indication was given that any of them were malfunctioning. Approximately 10 minutes after take-off, the aircraft radar signature was seen to split into two, with one part remaining stationary before disappearing from the radar screen. Other ships sent to the site included the French research vessel Pourquoi Pas?, equipped with two mini-submarines able to descend to 6,000 m (20,000 ft), since the area of the Atlantic in which the aircraft went down was thought to be as deep as 4,700 m (15,400 ft). Among the victims were 200 passengers, many of them British, who had been transferred from British Airways flights cancelled because of a strike by engineers at London airport. The inputs cancelled each other out and triggered an aural "dual input" warning. In 1974 the loss of a badly-fastened rear cargo door caused the crash of a Turkish Airlines DC-10 near Paris, with the death of 346 people.
", The flight data recordings stopped at 02:14:28 UTC, or three hours 45 minutes after takeoff.  The co-pilots had spent three nights in Rio de Janeiro, but the BEA was unable to retrieve data regarding their rest and could not determine their activities during the stopover. Turkish Airlines Flight 981 was a scheduled flight from Istanbul Yesilköy Airport to London Heathrow Airport, with an intermediate stop at Orly Airport in Paris. Shortly after 04:00, when the flight had failed to contact air traffic control in either Senegal or Cape Verde, the controller in Senegal attempted to contact the aircraft. BEA report 29 July 2011 (Synopsis of the Third interim report): This page was last edited on 3 November 2020, at 11:47.  The following day, the BEA issued a press release explicitly describing the Le Figaro report as a "sensationalist publication of non-validated information".  The aircraft's stall warning sounded briefly twice due to the angle of attack tolerance being exceeded, and the aircraft's indicated airspeed dropped sharply from 274 knots (507 km/h; 315 mph) to 52 knots (96 km/h; 60 mph). Half the accident investigators in the Western world – and in Russia too – are waiting for these results. The flight controls are not mechanically linked between the two pilot seats, and Robert, the left-seat pilot who believed he had taken over control of the aircraft, was not aware that Bonin continued to hold the stick back, which overrode Robert's own control. There were many passengers on board from Japan and the United Kingdom, so observers from those countries followed the investigation closely.  Later that day, after meeting with relatives of the Brazilians on the aircraft, Brazilian Defence Minister Nelson Jobim announced that the Air Force believed the wreckage was from Flight 447. It killed all 261 people on board (247 passengers, 14 crew members). It came down just minutes after take-off at 1235 GMT, scything a mile-long trail through the forest of Ermenonville.
, In November 2015, Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor David Mindell discussed the Air France Flight 447 tragedy in the opening segment of an EconTalk podcast dedicated to the ideas in Mindell's 2015 book Our Robots, Ourselves: Robotics and the Myths of Autonomy.
The finite beacon battery life meant that, as the time since the crash elapsed, the likelihood of location diminished. Initial reports of his radio transmissions left it unclear whether he was telling the ground controllers that he was 'unable to control' the plane or that he was experiencing 'unreliable control.'. Dedicated in memory of the victims and their families affected by the crash of Turkish Airlines, Flight 981 in Paris, France, 1974. " First officer Robert responded to this by saying, "controls to the left", and took over control of the aircraft.
A 2001 Airworthiness Directive (AD) required these to be replaced with either a later Goodrich design, part number 0851HL, or with pitot tubes made by Thales, part number C16195AA. On 3 March 1974, the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 operating the flight crashed into the Ermenonville Forest, outside Paris, killing all 346 people on board. , March 1974 plane crash in northern France, TC-JAV, the DC-10 involved in the accident, Aviation accidents and incidents in France, Includes overseas departments and overseas territories, Similarities to American Airlines Flight 96, The control cables were not completely severed on, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the collision of two Boeing 747s in Tenerife, Amalgamated Engineering and Electrical Union, List of notable decompression accidents and incidents, List of airliner crashes involving loss of control, "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10 TC-JAV Bois d'Ermenonville", Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR-73-02: American Airlines, Inc. McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10, N103AA. Roughly 20 seconds later, at 02:12 UTC, Bonin decreased the aircraft's pitch slightly, airspeed indications became valid, and the stall warning sounded again; it then sounded intermittently for the remaining duration of the flight, but stopped when the pilot increased the aircraft's nose-up pitch. Trans World Airlines Flight 514, registration N54328, was a Boeing 727-231 en route from Indianapolis, Indiana and Columbus, Ohio to Washington Dulles International that crashed into Mount Weather, Virginia on Sunday, December 1, 1974. A little later he radioed that he could not control the plane and that he had no idea of his position. It was also noted that the handle on the crash aircraft had been filed down at an earlier date to make it easier to close the door. Charlotte, NC Jet Crash Kills Sixty Nine, Sep 1974; Chesapeake, VA Beer Drinking Civil Air Patrol Pilot Crashes and Totals CAP Cessna 172 - Two Injured, Feb 1981; Cape Charles, VA Navy Plane Falls from Sky, Sept 1930; Danville, VA Private Plane Crash, Sep 1956; Lovettsville, VA Air Disaster, Aug 1940 Initially, media (including Los Angeles Times, Boston Globe and Chicago Tribune) cited unnamed investigators in their reporting that the recovered bodies were naked, which implied the plane had broken up at high altitude. [dead link] These messages, sent to prepare maintenance workers on the ground prior to arrival, were transmitted between 02:10 UTC and 02:15 UTC, and consisted of five failure reports and nineteen warnings. [i], In October 2011, a transcript of the CVR was leaked and published in the book Erreurs de Pilotage (Pilot Errors) by Jean Pierre Otelli.
Without the auto-pilot, the aircraft started to roll to the right due to turbulence, and Bonin reacted by deflecting his side-stick to the left. The Brazilian Navy sent a total of five ships to the debris site; the frigate Constituição and the corvette Caboclo were scheduled to reach the area on 4 June, the frigate Bosísio on 6 June and the replenishment oiler Almirante Gastão Motta on 7 June. To comply with these procedures, Flight 447 was crewed by three pilots: a captain and two first officers. At the time of the crash, it was Air France's newest A330. The smoking gun was a memo from the fuselage's manufacturer, Convair, to McDonnell Douglas, in which the series of events that occurred on Flight 96, and fatally on Flight 981, was foreseen; it concluded that if these events occurred it would probably result in the loss of the aircraft. Also, there was an indicator light in the cockpit, controlled by a switch actuated by the locking pin mechanism, that remained lit until the cargo hatch was correctly latched. In its defense during pretrial proceedings, McDonnell-Douglas attempted to blame the FAA for not issuing an airworthiness directive, Turkish Airlines for modification of the cargo door locking pins, and General Dynamics for an incorrect cargo door design.
An inward-opening passenger door also called a "plug door", is inherently more resistant to blowing open than an outward-opening cargo hatch. ", "French prosecutors recommend manslaughter charge for Air France over 2009 crash", "AF447: Air France sent back to court, case dismissed for Airbus", "Air France crash: Manslaughter charges dropped over 2009 disaster", "Nova Working on Air France 447 Documentary", "Episode 170: Children of the Magenta (Automation Paradox, pt.  With three pilots on board, each could take a break in the A330's rest cabin located behind the cockpit.
On 1 June 2009, the Airbus A330 serving the flight stalled and did not recover, eventually crashing into the Atlantic Ocean at 02:14 UTC, killing all 228 passengers and crew.
This has been the biggest investigation since Lockerbie. but had fallen into the ocean intact.
Bits of clothing and other wreckage from the plane were strewn across the whole area. The flight data recorder showed that the throttle for engine two snapped shut when the door failed. This confirmed the findings of the preliminary reports and provided additional details and recommendations to improve safety. Japanese meteorologists said the area was affected by thunderstorms at the time of the crash.  If the hatch were to fail for any reason, there was a high probability the plane would be lost. The second part turned left to a heading of 280 degrees. Debris was scattered over an area of at least three miles. If the vent was not plugged, the fuselage would not retain pressure, eliminating any pneumatic force on the hatch. Only 6 people survived, all of whom belonged to the first flight. The National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) investigation into Flight 96 determined that baggage handlers forced the locking handle closed, and the latches did not engage fully because of an electrical problem. Two occupied triple seat units were ejected from the aircraft due to the depressurisation. " The last recording on the CVR was captain Dubois saying: "(ten) degrees pitch attitude. Subsequent investigative tests proved the door yielded to approximately 15 psi (100 kPa) of pressure, in contrast to the 300 psi (2,100 kPa) that it had been designed to withstand..
:216 This requirement was incorporated into ADs issued by the European Aviation Safety Agency on 31 August and by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on 3 September. The crash occurred when an incorrectly secured cargo door at the rear of the plane burst open and broke off, causing an explosive decompression that severed critical cables necessary to control the aircraft. It is also the first fatal and deadliest crash involving the McDonnell Douglas DC-10, as well as the deadliest aviation accident to occur in France. It should be noted, however, that a view port was provided so that there could be a visual check of the engagement of the lock pins. :198 First officer Bonin continued making nose-up inputs. Captain Takahama was one of JAL's most experienced pilots. An Air France spokesperson told L'Express that there was "no hope for survivors", and French President Nicolas Sarkozy announced there was almost no chance anyone survived.
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