leaky greenhouse model

Based on your results in questions 1-3, which do you think is more likely to produce a net warming effect on the climate: a low cloud or a high cloud? Since there is no more atmosphere above layer 1, this upwelling flux is our Outgoing Longwave Radiation for this model: Notice that the three terms in the OLR represent the contributions to the total OLR that originate from each of the three levels. How would your answer change if the atmosphere were isothermal, i.e. We will choose. We just worked out that whenever we add some extra absorbers, the emissions to space (on average) will originate from higher levels in the atmosphere. Radiative Equilibrium, 12. In this model, only the longwave flux can change, so we define the radiative forcing as. The level of emission still must go up. The planetary albedo αP is the fraction of the incoming solar flux that is reflected back to space (since the atmosphere is assumed totally transparent to solar radiation, it does not matter whether this albedo is imagined to be caused by reflection at the surface of the planet or at the top of the atmosphere or a mixture). BUT our model now overpredicts the surface temperature by about 15ºC (or K). Water, water everywhere! Explain. The surface emits a radiative flux density F according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law: where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. 10. This is the absorptivity that guarantees that our model reproduces the observed OLR given the observed tempertures. For an isothermal atmosphere, there is no change in OLR when we add extra greenhouse absorbers. Orbital variations, insolation, and the ice ages, 19.1 This page was created by Brian E. J. $$T_s = 303 ~\text{K}$$. When you look into the perfect model for you, you will mostly likely choose between a polycarbonate lean to greenhouse and a glass lean to greenhouse. To get appropriate temperatures for $T_s, T_0, T_1$, let's revisit the global, annual mean lapse rate plot from NCEP Reanalysis data from the previous lecture. As we will see later, to really understand what sets that observed 22 W m$^{-2}$, we will need to start thinking about the spectral dependence of the longwave absorptivity. $$ U_2 = (1-\epsilon) U_1 + E_1 $$. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. The radiative forcing for doubling carbon dioxide is 3.71 W m−2, in a simple parameterization. Are your S0/4. we add more absorbers)? Introducing the two-layer leaky greenhouse¶ Let's generalize the above model just a little bit to build … This means we sum up cloud water, water vapor, rainfall, and evaporation changes for each month in each location of the globe. $$ T_s = 2^\frac{1}{4} T_a \approx 1.2 T_a $$. Understanding this question is key to understanding how the greenhouse effect works. A model is physically correct if the global budget is closed.

These two streams of radiation will have distinct emission and absorption characteristics. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed here are mine and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Development of these notes and the climlab software is partially supported by the National Science Foundation under award AGS-1455071 to Brian Rose. The components of the OLR before the perturbation are. 26. For the one-layer “leaky greenhouse” model we considered in class (discussed in Section 2.3.2 of lecture notes), suppose that, all else being fixed, the atmospheric absorption depends linearly on atmospheric CO2 concentration as = 0 +[CO2] 1, where [CO2] is CO2 concentration (in ppm), 0 =0.734,and 1 =1.0 × 10−4(ppm)−1.

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