conclusion for carbon footprint essay

Klein and Rubin [24] analyzed the GHG emissions by IPCC GWP 100a method of 1 MWh of electricity production from PT CSP plants with wet and dry cooling and with three energy backup systems: (1) minimal backup (MB), (2) molten salt TES, and (3) a NG-fired HTF heater (NG). Guidelines had been made on these issues from existing assessment standards, but further improvement is still needed. Organizations carbon footprint assessment standards—ISO14064 and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) protocol and product carbon footprint assessment standards—PAS2050, TSQ0010, ISO14047 and Product and Supply Chain GHG Protocol were analysed comparatively. The average individual's carbon footprint is around three and a half. This report outlines the principles behind carbon footprints and their reduction on both a societal, national and global scale.

Meanwhile, the carbon footprint is a measure of carbon dioxide emissions [6][7]. However, it need not be the case, and hence an initial attempt has been made to conduct a PCF analysis of low-profile electronic product such as induction cooker and is presented in this chapter. However, some organizations reported carbon footprint as carbon equivalent (Wiedmann and Minx, 2007), but CO2e is widely used and commonly accepted unit for carbon footprint. The boundary definition is unscientific, and carbon emission factors are uncertain. Same methods to consolidate organization facility-level GHG emissions and removals: by control or by equity share. Scientists have seen a measurable increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in recent decades. The criteria of comparability and verifiability are drawn from principles of external reporting. Introduction These issues need further research and analysis, especially in organization and product fields. GWP was introduced by the first IPCC assessment report in 1990 with illustrative purposes and does not embed any climate system responses or direct link to policy goals. Meanwhile, a third-party verification of carbon footprint was suggested to be carried out, to add credibility and confidence to carbon reporting for public disclosure. For the setting of the system boundaries, two standards have the same organizational boundary settings; the difference is the settings of the operational boundary. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released.

At the same time, combined with the existing assessment standards, ISO is being prepared for ISO14047, which is expected to be released in 2013. ISO released ISO14040/44 standards, developed frameworks and steps for the environmental management standard assessment with the LCA method in 1996. PCF analysis was carried out covering raw material extraction; manufacturing and transportation phases (cradle to gate) of the studied product and the results are presented individually. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The carbon footprint study is the basis of low-carbon research. The Ecological Footprint is a resource accounting tool used widely as a management and communication tool by governments, businesses, educational institutions and NGOs to answer a specific resource question: How much of the biological capacity of the planet is required by a given human activity or population? 2 As discussed, the effects of greenhouse gases and the greenhouse effect has led to the earth’s rapid increase in global warming. Specifies principles and requirements for the design, development, management, reporting and verification of an organization's GHG inventory. We can create an original paper just for you! Different carbon footprint boundaries of person, product, organization and country. The footprint metaphor was first used in an energy context by Canadian ecologist William Rees in the mid 1990s, when he and his graduate student Mathis Wackernagel collaborated to establish the concept of an ecological footprint, for which Wackernagel developed the methodology. Contrastive analysis of assessment standards of product carbon footprint. Dr. Jacobson’s argument in the debate claims that we don’t need to turn to nuclear energy for energy support in this country because wind energy has the potential to meet our energy needs without subjection to the negative environmental impact that nuclear technology imposes. Product carbon footprint (PCF) of personal electronic products, in particular, receives low attention, and this might be because of the notion that small-scale products are assumed to create lesser environmental problems. Similar to the effect of economic activities on the nitrogen cycle through reactive nitrogen mobilization and emissions, the carbon cycle is also hugely disrupted because of economic activities.

The authors identified that the GHG-emission intensity of the auxiliary electricity supply and the fuel choice for the auxiliary boilers are important drivers of life cycle GHG emissions and life cycle water consumption, in addition to the fundamental contribution from the materials embodied in the collector system. 1. the total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide. Meanwhile, owing to several complementary standards had been published, such as the GHG Protocol for Project Accounting (2005), Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry Guidance for GHG Project Accounting (2006), Guidelines for Quantifying GHG Reductions from Grid-Connected Electricity Projects (2007) and Corporate Scope 3 (value chain) Accounting and Reporting (2011), the selection and collection of GHG activity data and emission factors are more clear and operational when using the GHG Protocol. Establishing operational boundaries: The operational boundary determines which emission sources will be quantified. The PCR, as outlined in ISO 14025, was preferentially recommended to settle the system boundaries by the four standards.

The key steps in calculating a product carbon footprint are shown in Figure 4: Product life cycle analysis: it is an essential procedure for carrying out the product life cycle analysis to identify all materials, activities and processes that contribute to the chosen product's life cycle. LCA traditionally aggregates emissions of well-mixed GHGs to the so-called “CO2 equivalents” using GWP100 as the default emission metric. Corona et al. This latter characteristic is necessary given the difficult of directly verifying claims regarding carbon emissions.

An ecological footprint is the measurement system that helps us calculate the human pressure(the human demand) on Earth's ecosystems.It calculates what percentage and part of the world we use individually or in groups. Studies that deal with GWP indicators, usually based on kg CO2 eq., are considered here. Carbon Footprint: Global Warming Global warming (a gradual increase in the earth’s and the oceans’ average temperature) and carbon footprint (the amount of greenhouse gases primarily carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by human activities) coincide because without carbon footprint there would not be any global warming. In order to make the results of carbon emissions accounting comparable, governments and international organizations, such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the World Resources Institute (WRI), the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the British Standards Institution (BSI), have introduced different kinds of carbon footprint assessment standards mainly for organizations and products through a large number of research studies since the end of the last century. Tao Gao, Qing Liu, Jianping Wang, A comparative study of carbon footprint and assessment standards, International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, Volume 9, Issue 3, September 2014, Pages 237–243,

Methods in which carbon emissions can be reduced are explored in the household and commercial sector. Calculating carbon footprint: The accuracy of the footprint relies on collating consumption data for all of the emission sources within the system boundary of the entire life cycle of product. Consumption data, as mentioned above, is either obtained from actual bills in the case of existing buildings or from simulations in the case of projected buildings.

A personal carbon footprint is carbon dioxide emissions caused by each person's clothing, food, housing and traffic of daily life. Everybody in the world has a carbon footprint, The Carbon Footprint Emission factors and models are the most suggested techniques for the calculation of carbon footprint using data on emissions from consumption of fuels, energy, and other inputs. You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. For the evaluation of carbon footprint of a product, the opening step is to assess the amount of GHGs emitted or embodied in product's life cycle, technically known as “GHG accounting.” Life cycle includes all the stages involved in the manufacturing of the product, thus gives a complete picture of inputs and outputs during the entire process with respect to energy consumption, GHG emissions, generation of air, water and soil pollutants, and cost-benefit initiatives (Table 8.1). For commercial re-use, please contact [email protected], Thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of polyurethane–zirconia loading, Technical and environmental analysis of photovoltaic and solar water heater cogeneration system: a case study of Saveh City, Designing post-disaster temporary housing inspired by the housing of indigenous nomads of Iran, Synergistic effect of ZnO nanoparticles with organic compound as corrosion inhibition, Thermodynamic assessment and performance optimization of solid oxide fuel cell-Stirling heat engine–reverse osmosis desalination, About International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, 3 ORGANIZATIONAL CARBON FOOTPRINT AND ASSESSMENT STANDARDS, 4. This tool could be quickly developed, The choice depends on costs and how the PCF is going to be used. In fact for every person born, twenty more metric tons of carbon is emitted into the air each year from simple everyday life processes.


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